In a very soft parenchymatous tissue strands of hard, sclerenchymatous vascular bundles are embedded. Due to their bending over the wheels, they can not be TC-tipped. Cocos nucifera L, the coconut palm, is an agricultural crop widely spread throughout the tropics. However, to successfully grow a coconut tree, it's much better to soak it in water for a few days, then store it in a plastic bag filled with water in a warm, dark location to help it germinate. Fungi usually attack the palm stem, when its vitality is diminshed due to insects or mycoplasma-like organisms, or after physical damage, be it through hurricanes, or due to human impact. Since any trunk wound may result in stem bleeding, close examination of the point of infection is required. Cobalide 3 and Eutector 9000 have given good results. Table 1: Palm stem data (at 60 years of age), (Average values, dependent on age, site and variety.). These bundles contain the water and nutrient transport system (xylem vessels and phloem) as well as thick-walled fibres giving the stem its strength, and paratracheal parenchymatic cells. The fronds and the discarded top portion of the stem should be burnt in the plantation after drying. -   the gullet size has to be increased in order to facilitate the removal of the very fine sawdust during sawing. Table 35: Tool angle when shaping coconut palm wood with TC knives The choice of equipment depends on the size of the operation. 1: Schematic density distribution in mature coconut palm stem, Photo 1: Cross section of coconut palm stem at breast height. The essential things that must be considered are: - density group and wood structure - the climate where it is to be used - the woodworking conditions. 10.2.2 Calculation of manufacturing costs. When the plantation-grown palms reached this age in the 1960s, replanting programmes were developed and the question of economic removal and disposal of old palms arose. 15 List of Figures It can be made of old oil-drums cut in half lengthwise and welded together, or a trough dug into the soil and lined with plastic, or a plastic-lined wooden trough. During the entire operation of felling and processing of coconut stems, proper waste disposal is of paramount importance in order to prevent the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) and palm weevil (Rhynchophorus schach oliv.) Proper maintenance of saws has a direct influence on: Proper training of saw doctors is indispensable. Aline is then drawn along the stem to mark where it should be split. Native to tropical islands in the western pacific, the coconut palm is probably what comes to mind for many when you say the phrase "palm tree." 11 Marketing. On the contrary: the use of the timber generates a windfall profit to the farmer. The diamond wheels are available in different grades dependent on the percentage of diamonds. The coconut palm is a monocotyledon. 20: Additional pattern for cutting purloins, Fig. In order to facilitate later grading, only one category of logs (butt logs, middle logs or top logs) may be loaded and sawn at a given time. The cutting patterns proposed are shown in Figures 19 – 24. If the coconut is in good condition and has enough water inside of it, it could possibly sprout and grow into a tree in a few years. Figure 1 gives a qualitative impression of the density distribution over the stem from five 80-year-old Philippine palms, Photo 1 shows its distribution (dark = high density) over a cross section. Two alternative set-ups are possible, dependent on volume and area of operation: The saw, whether transportable or stationary, should be roofed (thatch, corrugated iron, or other) to protect the operating staff, timber, and equipment against sun and rain. The sawdust has to be removed regularly from the saw (Photo 37). 1. Three methods can be used for its application (FAO,1985): -   A drop of molten stellite can be applied to the swage cup. It also implies that only stems of tall varieties can be used for timber, not those of dwarf varieties. All band-saw blades should be stellited. Converted into oil, it becomes the base for a wide range of products, from cooking oil to soap and shoe polish. Always clean logs of sand and mud before sawing! To reduce stifling heat, the shed should be airy, preferably open on the sides. For trimming, the installation of a radial armsaw has proved most useful. By experience, frequent turning of the log during sawing yields the highest recovery of dense material, if broken down with circular or band-saws. Coconut Palm Care . At the end of the last century, coconut palms were planted in larger plantations, especially in the Pacific and on the Philippines, Ceylon, East Africa and the Caribbean, for large-scale copra production. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L., native of the humid tropics, is a versatile, multipurpose palm with slender unbranched stem crowned with a cluster of long green pinnate leaves producing fruit bunches borne on the leaf axils. Along this line, wedges are driven into the stem approximately 50 cm apart. The stem … The attack appears as brown spots on a cross cut or as a string spot on a longitudinal cut, where the parenchyma is gone and only the bundles remain intact. A cavity may develop beneath the affected area. Removal was necessary in order to make space for new plantations. load-bearing structural purposes, furniture, wall-panelling, curios. Traditionally, coconut palms were found around hamlets in the tropics, in rather small stands to provide the villagers with basics such as: -   ropes and strings (coir from the husks), -   alcoholic drink (from the inflorescence - tuba or toddy). Timber from upper stem periphery and lower middle section. The diseases are known as Lethal Yellowing and Cadang-Cadang. One of the reasons that coconut stems have, as yet, rarely been converted into lumber on a larger scale, is their peculiar texture. A recovery of about 45 % can be achieved. Once these palms are 50 – 60 years old the copra yield declines rapidly. wall-panelling. 10.2 Calculation of costs for cut timber from coconut palm wood. The recovery depends very much on height and diameter of the palms, on sweep, number and depth of harvesting steps. 14 List of Tables. This attack reduces both the properties as well as the appearance of the timber. The dipping tank has to be protected by a roof to prevent the dilution of the preservative by rainwater. Depending on the size of the break down saw, the logs may have to be cross-cut again to the required length. Stigmina leaf spot Stigmina palmivora: Thread blight Ceratobasidium noxium The boards are passed over to the breast bench for edging. This gives a finished point similar to the second method. purposes, framing, flooring, staircases, tool handles, furniture. Photo 28: Manual ramp-loading of palm logs. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. Both insects can create havoc in newly established plantations. from breeding. The increase of gullet size on a given saw diameter automatically results in the reduction of the number of teeth (for solid tooth nomenclature refer to Figure 29). Imprint Published by: Protrade: Dept. 13 Glossary. 35 Inch Coconut Palm Stem. Stem bleeding is a common symptom of Thielaviopsis trunk rot observed on Cocos nucifera (coconut). UH–CTAHR Stem Bleeding of Coconut Palm PD-30 — Sept. 2005 2 ids. This experimental study subjected the coconut stem strips to various conditions in order to know the behaviour of the coconut strips in concrete. Rhinoceros beetle attack can easily be detected visually. The bite recommended is between 1 and 1.3 mm per tooth. Download : Download high-res image (357KB) The actual economic life of a coconut palm is also an important consideration. However, due to the absence of rays, differences of properties in tangential and radial direction, as they exist in conventional timbers, are negligible. However, due to their anatomical structure the veneer sheets tend to split and break along the vascular bundles, either immediately after peeling, or after drying. 25: Fixing of coconut log for handsawing, Fig. Mycoplasma-like organisms attack the phloem and clog it. 12 Checklist: How to start coconut palm stem utilization. The stem lacks bark, cambium, and with no secondary growth features, volume once formed remains unaltered. Coconut Palm Stem Processing Technical Handbook Wulf Killmann and Dieter Fink Protrade Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5 D-65760 Eschborn . Insects usually attack the growing point of the palm, reduce its vitality and finally lead to its death. In coconut: Physical description …leaning, ringed trunk of the coconut palm rises to a height of up to 25 metres (80 feet) from a swollen base and is surmounted by a graceful crown of giant featherlike leaves. The recommended standard equipment is as follows: -   side grinder (for band-saw equalizer), -   hammering bench (for band-saw roller-stretcher), -   tools like hammers, straight edges, gauges. Fig. Frame-or gang-saws consist of a frame which carries a number of parallel blades, which can be preset at varying distances. The slabs are sorted out for production of small items such as tool handles, novelty items etc., or for firewood or charcoal. Coconut palms can be classified according to the size and stature of the palm, and are referred to as Talls and Dwarfs. Fresh logs are sawn more easily than dry ones! Recovery in band-saw milling has proved to be the highest with up to 50 %. The shallow root system, lack of a tap root and the palm tree’s preference for sandy soils make it susceptible for being easily uprooted. for utilization. Stem bleeding Ceratocystis paradoxa (Chalara paradoxa, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, anamorphs) Thielaviopsis. -   Molten stellite can be poured into a ceramic mould around the tooth point. For coconut wood the use of grade ISO K30 is advisable. Disease Symptoms (Stem bleeding of coconut palm): Soft, slowly expanding decay of trunk tissues, darkening to black with age. Watering of the saw-blade during sawing has proved helpful in order to reduce the heating of the blade due to friction, and to reduce the clogging of sawdust in the gullets. According to stem height, tall and dwarf varieties are distinguished. The fibrous vascular bundles make good raw material for particle board, gypsum-or cement-bonded panels, or medium-density-fibreboards (MDF). Various techniques have been applied to prolong the life of the saw teeth. Hence, it cannot regenerate damaged tissues. In other words, they consist of male and female flowers on the same inflorescence (spadix) that develops within a woody spathe. In Sri Lanka, high yielding palms much older than 60 years are not uncommon. The feed speed depends on the thickness of the boards and the revolutions per minute (rpm). Coconut palm wood must be machined with TC/Stellite-tipped cutting edges, which enable good operating results. They can be made of hardwood, even hard coconut wood. The main produce is copra, the dried kernel of the nut. The main produce is copra, the dried kernel of the nut. Rainwater and dirt collects in the wounds, and fungi (and later also insects like termites) find their way into the stem and feed on the parenchymatic tissue. After the log is split, the inner, highly perishable part has to be hewn out with an axe or adze. After dipping, the boards are sorted according to thickness, size and quality (grading) and stacked in the seasoning shed. For proper maintenance of saws an appropriately staffed and equipped saw doctor shop is indispensable. 24: Cutting pattern for frame-sawing. It can be done with a hand-gulleting machine after removal of the saw-blade from the rig, or with a portable “jockey” grinder, which can be clamped on to the saw-blade while on the rig. Converted into oil, it becomes the base for a wide range of products, from cooking oil to soap and shoe polish. Coconut wood can only be sawn effectively with TC-or Stellite-tipped teeth! They can be used for rafters or trusses in sheds and simple construction. In Table 5 two examples are given. Figure 24 depicts sawing patterns applicable when frame-sawing. Ultimately the palm dies off. Examples- coconut, palm, and betel nut. 80-year-old palms of the San Ramon Tall variety in Zamboanga. They're hardy trees and can live for 100 years. Understanding the epidemiological behavior of the disease is essential for establishing more efficient control strategies. Never keep more than several days' log supply in log-yard, since coconut palm stems decay fast! The logs can be broken down by the following methods: The easiest way to breakdown coconut palm logs is to split them with wedges. mango, berry, coconut, palm, etc. Coconut palm trees produce roots that grow just below the surface in a fibrous mass from the tree’s base, reaching out distances that are as far as the tree is tall. The following table (Table 35) shows cutting angles with which good operating results have been achieved. For the saw-blades and their maintenance see Chapter 4.5. After edging or resawing, they are treated in the dipping tank (Chapter 7). The production rate is about 0.04 m3/man-hour. Four different steel types are used for the processing of solid timber, namely: Their advantages, disadvantages and uses are discussed in Table 9. The economics of wood-based panels made from coconut timber have yet to be proven. Coconut logs can be peeled and sliced. Presently, more than 10 million ha are worldwide under coconut palms. They're strong and their roots extend deep into the soil. Although inappropriate, the term “coconut wood” has been established for the material of the coconut palm stem, and will therefore be used in this handbook as well. During the process of chipping and hammer-milling the parenchymatic tissue disintegrates into a fine dust. The Leaf However, a mature palm may have as much as 18 000 vascular bundles which help it to withstand significant physical damage to its trunk, provided pest entry is prevented. Photo 31: Circular saw headrig (note the wide gullets in saw-blade). The root (wilt) affected coconut are susceptible to diseases such as leaf rot and pests such as rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. The feed speeds to be applied in breaking down the logs range from 10 – 25 m/min; for edging or resawing feed speeds of 20–40 m/min can be applied. All mechanical properties which define the use of a timber are closely related to its density (weight/volume at given moisture content). Stationary mills might be equipped with a concrete trough. Prior to sawing operations, the saw has to be properly aligned, the saw-blade hammered, and the teeth sharpened (Astell,1981). Over the years, the fungal invasion of the interior stem can rot the stem entirely, causing plant decline and death. However, as with the latter, it is only applicable where a small number of logs is to be converted. It has been cultivated by man for 4000 years. In Zamboanga, Philip-pines, a research station was established and the utilization of the coconut palm stem as a timber resource was assessed and proven. Coconut Palm Stem (Pack of 10) $ 8.00 Number of Stems: Qty: Derived from the Coconut Palm, Cocos nucifera, these amazing stems are one of the coolest "accent pieces" we've come across.They have a hard texture on the outside, but do retain some flexibility. It is preferable to achieve a good segregation of these unwanted fines and the bundles. Attention should be paid to the bite. 23: Cutting pattern for conventional sawmills, Fig. The logs are loaded from the log-yard to the log skid. 19: Cutting pattern for coconut logs, Fig. The coconut stem shows a decrease of physical and mechanical properties from periphery to … It is of ten thought that the economic life span of a coconut tree is about 60 years. If not converted into smaller wooden items, they can be cut into shorter billets and converted to charcoal after drying. The percentage of the various density groups per stem depends on variety, site, age, sweep of palm, human impact (harvesting step, Figure 4), and the extent of fungus and insect damage. As the coconut tree is propagated by seed, they are subjected to some variations which can be distinguished in the trees, fruit… The coconut stem has no cambium. Timber from core sections. 27: Two-man ripsaw for coconut palm logs. As decay progresses, a darkly pigmented liquid bleeds down the trunk from the point of invasion (usually a stem wound, e.g., Figure 1), covering the stem surface with a superficial black layer of stem fluids. Most commonly fungi find entrance into the stem through harvesting steps cut into the outer, hard portion of the stem in some countries in order to facilitate harvesting of the nuts (Figure 4). They are also monoecious. The log-yard, like the sawmilling area, should be cleared of vegetation, well-drained, and be covered by a layer of gravel or compacted material, which prevents the build-up of mud during rainy seasons. The blades have a heavier gauge than band-saw blades, but they are considerably thinner than those of circular saws. Root (wilt) Disease symptoms. Loading can be done with a forklift, a farm tractor equipped with a frontloader, or manually over a ramp (Photo 28). Initial moisture content, on the other hand, increases in the same directions, with lowest values at the bottom periphery (50 %) and highest (up to 400 %) in the stem centre at the top (Killmann, 1983). In order to obtain maximum production before blunting, the bite should be as big as possible. The ground parenchyma has mainly a storage function and contains starch among other things. As its common name suggests, the pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) is a small-sized palm tree.This is a true type of palm in the family Arecaceae and it doesn’t grow taller than 10 ft. (3 m). The saws should either be tungsten-carbide (TC) tipped or equipped with stellited inserted teeth. Results are: -   circular and frame-saw blades should either be. Stellite is available in rod form and has to be fused under heat on to the base metal of the saw tooth. Chance of confusing the pests and disease symptom with the root (wilt) disease; IPM for Coconut. The different saws are compared in Tables 7 and 8. has been cultivated successfully. Indoor use only, where no load is applied, e.g. Strong stem– This type of stems are strong and keep the plant erect firmly on ground e.g. To know the IPM practices for Coconut, click here. The coconut palm is actually the most widely grown palm tree in the world. 28: Sawing coconut logs by chain-saw, Photo 30: Chain-sawing of palm stems with guide bar. The coconut palm tree and the oil palm tree are two distinct trees that look very similar. This property distribution requires an early separation of boards originating from the outer, harder part of the stem, and those from the softer core. All older plantations are planted with tall varieties. Furniture and Wooden Products Deutsche Gesellschaft It has been cultivated by man for 4000 years. 4: Harvesting steps in coconut palm stem, With 80-year-old palms of the San Ramon Tall variety in Zamboanga a distribution of. Subsequently, various coconut-growing countries started to investigate the economic disposal or use of the stem. Prior to dipping, it is advisable to brush off the sawdust, which otherwise may prevent proper surface treatment in the dipping tank, and which may also settle there, thus binding the preservative and reducing its effectiveness. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is an erect palm in the family Arecaceae which is grown its fruits, used primarily for the extraction of coconut oil for use in cooking. Fig. In most cases removal and later charcoaling is not economical since the charcoal recovery and its quality are low. A matured coconut palm stem was gotten from Badagry, Lagos, (6°25′N and 2°53′E), Nigeria. (a) Caudex: The stem is erect, strong and has a crown of leaves at the top. Select mill type dependent on size of operation and know-how/expertise available! Used for limited 10.3 Cash-flow analysis and internal rate of return of a coconut palm wood furniture plant. Stem bleeding disease (resinosis) of coconut palm is caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa and is very important in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The coconut palm has an erect or slightly curved stem which grows from a swollen base. Fig. Can be used for load-bearing structural Sulc (1983, 3) has assessed the mechanical properties for the different density groups (Table 2) of 80-year-old coconut palm stems from Mindanao, Philippines. Table 5: Data on circular sawmill for coconut wood conversion, Table 6: Daily recovery rate from circular sawmills. If the material was left to rot, the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) would start to breed in the decaying material and attack the young seedlings. This stem bleeding is a reddish-brown or brown or black stain that runs down the trunk from the point of infection (Figure 6). They are available in various qualities. Fig. 3: Cross section of coconut palm stem with density zones. If this method is applied, the log has to be clamped either on a ramp or with the help of wooden pegs to the ground. Of these methods, the last is most expensive in terms of initial investment, but saves on the expensive stellite rods. Only when palms are over 60 years of age (that is, when the copra yield declines, and they are of less interest to the farmer), is enough “wood” built up and therefore of use to the sawmiller. The logs are cut according to the sawing pattern chosen. Frame-saws have been developed to breakdown small-diameter logs. The sawing of both tissues together results in rapid blunting of conventional saw-blades. Mature fruits, ovoid or ellipsoid in shape, 300–450 mm (12–18 inches) in … The trial was conducted in Devikulangara and Thekkekkara Panchayaths of Alappuzha district for 4 years from 2008 to 2012. Oven-dry density ranges from 0.85 g/cm3 at the lower periphery to 0.11 g/cm3 in the pith at the top end. 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