2. USGS and other scientists have used the 1908 report, as well as historical newspaper accounts, photographs, pioneer diaries, and letters, to understand the shaking effects and gauge the size of the 1868 earthquake. The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes.This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay.It runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose. The dates for earthquakes before 1868 are based on radiocarbon dating. Because seismographs had not yet been invented, there are no recordings of the 1868 earthquake. In 1868, the little settlement of Haywards was nearest to the epicenter of the earthquake. The forces associated with the fault have pushed up the East Bay hills on the east and dropped down the San Francisco Bay block on the west. Dot size indicates the present relative population sizes of cities. Two factors combine to make the Hayward Fault very dangerous. The cracking of the ground along the Hayward Fault was traced about 20 miles (32 km) from San Leandro to Warm Springs in Fremont, although modeling of survey data suggest that the fault moved as far north as Berkeley, and from these data the average amount of horizontal movement along the fault is inferred to be about 6 feet (1.9 meters). Shaking was felt as far away as Nevada, and aftershocks rattled the Bay Area for weeks. Hayward has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 6 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 17 earthquakes in the past 30 days; 319 earthquakes in the past 365 days However, many scientists believe that the Hayward Fault is connected to the Calaveras Fault to the south, the Rodgers Creek Fault to the north and to the Maacama Fault still farther north. The Calaveras Fault is a major branch of the San Andreas Fault System that is located in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area. The Hayward fault is a 90 kilometer long crack in the Earth's crust that travels through the San Francisco Bay area. The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, which itself is an offshoot of the Its last major rupture occurred in 1868, during California's frontier days, and was the original "Great San Francisco Earthquake" until 1906. The most dangerous fault in the Bay Area is, as of now, due to fail at any time. This event marked the end of a period of severely reduced creep on the southern part of the fault that began after the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake. The Seismic Hazard Mapping Program addresses the secondary earthquake hazards of liquefaction (the inability of water-saturated, heavily shaken soil to support structures) and landslides. A Double-Difference Earthquake Location Algorithm: Method and Application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California Felix Waldhauser; Felix Waldhauser U.S. Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Rd., MS977 Menlo Park, California, 94025 felix@andreas.wr.usgs.gov ellsworth@usgs.gov . By Thomas M. Brocher, Jack Boatwright, James J. Lienkaemper, Carol S. Prentice, David P. Schwartz, and Howard Bundock. Section I (Stops 1–4) consists of stops that are part of the University of California at Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), including research facilities, retrofit of campus buildings, and geomorphic features along the fault. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. (Public domain.). USGS earthquake science tells us that it’s now urgent to prepare for the next magnitude 7 quake on the Hayward Fault. In addition to creating scenarios, regular practice drills by whole communities are essential. Vous avez dit Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont? mini wrote a review Jan 2020. Technically speaking, the Hayward is a right-lateral strike-slip fault. (Public domain.). The Hayward fault runs through the East Bay hills from San Jose through Richmond. (I’ll return to that.) The inset photo shows the courthouse before the quake. Filter. Innovations included a stronger course of brick-laying, incorporating iron binders into brick walls, and interior iron framing. A second factor making the Hayward Fault so dangerous is that its most recent damaging earthquake was more than 150 years ago. October 21, 2008, marks the 140th Anniversary of the 1868 approximate Magnitude 7 earthquake. This means that it shows its everyday action in the form of aseismic creep, the slow, steady sliding of land along the fault’s margin. The crustal structure across the northern Hayward Fault zone, in the vicinity of Berkeley, is rather complex with a lateral bedrock velocity contrast of approximately 30 across the fault zone with the SW side fast and also with an attenuation contrast across the fault zone with the NE side having higher attenuation as evidenced by the variability in the observed seismic ground motions shown in Figure 16.2. The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, an offshoot of the San Andreas Fault, near Hollister. On April 15, 2006, Drs. (Public domain.). The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller … Combining these intensity estimates with current knowledge of earthquake effects and geology allows researchers to create a “ShakeMap” that depicts the inferred intensity of shaking throughout the region in 1868 and can also be used to predict damage to modern buildings. Some textbook examples of fault-related features occur in Hayward, at the center of the fault, and are easily seen within walking distance of the Bay area's light-rail line, BART. Date: Friday, June 26 2020. Réservez votre propriété de vacances en ligne. This is an easy walk and a good opportunity to educate yourself and your children. The Hayward fault is part of the wide plate boundary between the two largest lithospheric plates: the Pacific plate on the west and the North American plate on the east. Bon choix! All languages; English (9) Selected filters. Popular mentions . We’ve updated this video: https://youtu.be/GhFMtCmHc9cOctober 21st will mark the 141st Anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake. Brick buildings, walls, and chimneys were also shaken down in Oakland, San Francisco, Santa Rosa, and San Jose, and there was serious damage in Napa and Hollister. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. After the 1868 quake, and a previous one in 1865, damaged San Francisco, engineers worked to strengthen buildings throughout the Bay Area. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. The west side moves north with each major earthquake on it. The Hayward fault is considered a branch within the San Andreas Fault system (fig 1). Réservez maintenant, payez plus tard avec Expedia. At its northern end, the Hayward fault runs across undeveloped land in a regional shoreline park. Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. It is located within its central section, between the latitudes of San Jose and Bakersfield. The Hayward Fault pretty much runs through the center of downtown Fremont and many of its suburban neighborhoods where this walk is located. The Hayward fault zone is bounded on the east by a series of faults that demarcate the beginning of one or more structural blocks containing rocks and structures unrelated to the Hayward fault zone. : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3052, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183052. The urban infrastructure in the Bay Area has been tested only by the relatively remote, 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the smaller 2014 magnitude 6.0 South Napa earthquake. "The Hayward Fault is a tectonic time bomb," said U.S. Geological Survey senior seismologist Tom Brocher. Hundreds of homes and other structures are built along the fault trace, and mass transit corridors, major freeways, and many roadways cross it at numerous locations. The purple line is the little-known Miller Creek fault. Critical regional gas and water pipelines and electrical transmission lines cross the fault. USGS scientists describe the Hayward fault as a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. Families; Couples; Solo; Business; Friends; Time of year. Study of excavations across the Hayward Fault has provided a record of strong earthquakes, all estimated at magnitude of 6.3 or greater, going back hundreds of years—some historical events are shown for reference. An example of a dip-slip or transform fault is the San Andreas fault in California. Numerous witnesses reported seeing the ground move in waves. Comparing the ShakeMaps from the 1868 Hayward and the 1989 (magnitude 6.9) Loma Prieta earthquakes shows that a repeat of the 1868 quake would produce much higher levels of shaking and damage in the East Bay than the 1989 quake. Objectives General: Describe the Hayward Fault at the central park using the technology tools Google Earth applying the got knowledge throughout the field methods course to the characterization of the different geological features in the field trips. Recent studies show that such powerful Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past. 2) normal fault. William L. Ellsworth. The symptoms of this tectonic origami are visible across the region in cracked asphalt, off-kilter curbstones, and leaning walls. San Jose, a town of about 9,000 that lies several miles south and west of the fault trace, had few wrecked buildings but many fallen chimneys. In the early morning of October 21, 1868, seismic waves from a powerful earthquake raced through the fog-shrouded San Francisco Bay area. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk. and if you can, can u guys also tell me the most recent major earthquake along this fault, and also problems we would encounter if we have another major earthquake along this fault… Until it was eclipsed by the great 1906 earthquake, the 1868 earthquake was known as the “great San Francisco quake.” The area of strongest shaking covered about 1,000 square miles. Is the Hayward Fault the Nation’s Most Dangerous Fault? The mainshock begins beneath the City of Oakland (star) and causes the Hayward Fault to rupture along about 52 miles of its length (thick black line). The next time it produces a large quake, the damage and destruction could be staggering - estimated economic losses from an 1868-strength earthquake (6.8 magnitude) could exceed 120 billion dollars. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that the fault may be ready to produce another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. In Ground Above Ground Commercial By Category . Major earthquake faults in the San Francisco Bay region. 1) strike-slip fault. Strong shaking lasted more than 40 seconds, devastating several East Bay towns. The Hayward Fault is shorter than the San Andreas, running about 70 kilometers from Fremont to Point Pinole, and is therefore not expected to produce the magnitude-8-plus quakes we know the San Andreas can generate. It is a right-lateral strike-slip fault, meaning that motion along it is mainly horizontal, so that objects on the opposite side of the fault from the viewer will move to the viewer’s right as slip occurs. By reducing sys- tematic errors using the more accurate relative arrival times, the method produces an improved velocity model. Here’s a zoom-in to the lower right corner, showing the upper part of Arroyo Viejo and the valley of a defunct little stream that I’m calling Arroyo Viejito. The Hayward Fault runs along the foot of the East Bay hills, something that all residents of the Bay Area, and the East Bay in particular, should know. He placed expansion joints in the stadium exterior walls mainly at the points where the wall intersected the fault. Such an earthquake could unexpectedly change people’s lives and impact the Bay Area’s infrastructure and economy, but updated building codes and retrofits, as well as planning, community training, and preparedness, will help reduce the effects of a future Hayward Fault earthquake. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay region. Preparing now can significantly reduce loss of life and property from that coming quake. A. ALLAM,1 Y. BEN-ZION,1 and Z. PENG 2 Abstract—We observe fault zone head waves (FZHW) that are generated by and propagate along a roughly 80 km section of the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area. Traveller type. This fault, called a “tectonic time bomb,” is about 74 miles long. As the complex evolved, the Hayward fault at times may have been the principal active trace, as the San Andreas fault is today—and might be again.Transform plate boundaries are an important element of plate tectonics, the theoretical framework that explains the motions and behavior of Earth's outermost shell. The 1868 earthquake on the Hayward Fault capped a decade-long sequence of seven increasingly strong quakes in the Bay Area. The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake fault in the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. The Hayward Fault is a Strike-slip Fault. to the Hayward Fault, California by Haijiang Zhang and Clifford H. Thurber Abstract We have developed a double-difference (DD) seismic tomography method that makes use of both absolute and relative arrival times. Brocher, T.M., Boatwright, J., Lienkaemper, J.J., Prentice, C.S., Schwartz, D.P., and Bundock, H.P., 2018, The Hayward Fault—Is it due for a repeat of the powerful 1868 earthquake? ), Impact of the 1868 Hayward Quake on Building Practice. The earthquake occurred at 7:53 a.m. on October 21, 1868. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, USGS General Information Products 15, 41, and 42. Its last major earthquake occurred on October 21st, 1868, destroying downtown Hayward, killing 5 people and, injuring 30. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. We will see examples at points 5.2 and 5.4 on this tour. IE9 and older versions are not supported. This is a type of shearing force where the right block moves toward you and the left block moves away. Prenez le volant d’une voiture de type Camionette lorsque vous arrivez à Hayward Fault Exposed. Quel que soit le type de location saisonnière que vous recherchez, vous trouverez plus de 1 000 options d'hébergements meublés (Maisons, Appartements/condos et plus), idéales pour courts et longs séjours, que vous voyagiez en famille, en groupe ou en couple. Shaking from the 1868 quake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. Other important engineering lessons from the 1868 earthquake, though actively discussed at the time, were not heeded. The section of the Hayward Fault that produced the 1868 Hayward earthquake is highlighted in yellow. Arrows show relative movement on the fault. Today, Hayward, as it is now spelled, has a new city hall building that is built to ride on a lubricated foundation during a major quake like a kid on a skateboard. Hayward is a city in the East Bay area of Alameda County, California.It has a population of 144,186. However, as in 1906, well-constructed buildings on firm ground sustained much less damage. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Notably, the last six quakes (in 1134, 1317, 1475, 1629, 1725, and 1868) occurred at intervals of 95 to 183 years, with an average interval of about 150 years. Filter. Oakland, a town of about 12,000 and mainly wood-frame buildings, was much less heavily damaged than San Leandro and Hayward. Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. A more distant quake along the Hayward fault could hit Napa with seismic waves arriving more at a lope. The red stripe, which I added, represents the Hayward fault. Even though the region was only sparsely populated at the time, the 1868 quake killed about 30 people and caused great property damage. Although it has been known for some time that the Calaveras and Hayward faults merge in the South Bay region, recent geological studies suggest that the Calaveras and Hayward faults may be even more closely connected horizontally deep beneath the surface, angling toward each other with depth until they become a single fault. It still ranks as one of the most destructive earthquakes in California’s history, but this is not the end of the story. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. Motion over millions of years has brought different sets of rocks next to each other on the fault trace. Since then, nearly three million people have moved next to the Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential. English. Geodetic Constraints on San Francisco Bay Area Fault Slip Rates and Potential Seismogenic Asperities on the Partially Creeping Hayward Fault  Evans, Eileen Louise; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J. 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